Events

Born on August 14th:

Hans Christian OERSTED (1777 - 9.3.1851), a Danish physicist. In 1820, he discovered the effect of electric current on a magnetic needle, which led to the emergence of a new field of physics - electromagnetism. One of the first scientists expressed the idea that light is an electromagnetic phenomenon. In the years 1822-23. independently of Jean-Baptiste FOURIER, he rediscovered the thermoelectric effect and built the first thermoelement. He studied the compressibility and elasticity of liquids and gases, invented a piezometer (a device used to measure changes in the volume of substances under the influence of hydrostatic pressure. In 1830, Oersted became an honorary member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. He possessed not only scientific, but also pedagogical talent, and conducted educational activities.

Arthur Jeffrey DEMPSTER (1886 - 11.3.1950), a Canadian physicist who built the first mass spectrometer, and, together with Kenneth BAINBRIDGE and Joseph MATTAUCH, the first dual-focus mass spectrograph. In 1928, he specified the packing coefficient curve proposed by Francis ASTON. He devoted a significant part of his career to the search for stable isotopes of chemical elements and the determination of their prevalence - he discovered a number of stable isotopes of magnesium, calcium, platinum, palladium, barium, tellurium, tungsten, gadolinium, and in 1935 he discovered uranium-235, which was later used in atomic bombs.

Frank Friedman OPPENHEIMER (1912 - 3.2.1985), an American physicist, the specialist in particle physics. He conducted research on various issues of nuclear physics and contributed to improving the process of uranium enrichment. After the war, Oppenheimer returned to Berkeley, where he worked with Luis ALVAREZ and Wolfgang PANOFSKY to develop a proton linear accelerator. He founded the Exploratorium Science Museum in San Francisco.

Eugene Pavlovich MAZETS (1929 - 2.6.2013), a Soviet scientist, the corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, known in world science for research in the field of gamma astronomy and space physics. Laureate of the Lenin Prize. Evgeny Pavlovich created one of the best prism beta spectrometers in the country with an original measurement automation system. This spectrometer is still used at the St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics to study decay schemes of radioactive nuclei.

Konstantin Vasilievich GAVRILIN (1929 - 5.12.1995), a famous Soviet coal geologist, an honored geologist of the RSFSR (1978). He was engaged in the methodology of geological exploration and the study of coals of the Kansk-Achinsky coal basin, performed the calculation of brown coal reserves of this largest basin in the world.

Richard Robert ERNST (1933), a Swiss chemist. His main scientific works are devoted to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and its applications in chemistry and medicine. Found (1964) a way to significantly increase the sensitivity of the method by replacing a slow frequency sweep with short intense radiofrequency pulses, followed by obtaining the NMR spectrum using the Fourier transform. The Nobel Laureate of 1991 "for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy".

Dmitrii Alexandrovich VARSHALOVICH (1934), a theoretical physicist, an academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences (2000). The specialist in astrophysics, cosmology, theoretical spectroscopy, quantum theory. He made a fundamental contribution to various fields of modern astrophysics: kinetics and spectroscopy of interstellar molecules, quasar physics, cosmology. The scientist and his students performed theoretical modeling of the appearance of primary chemical elements in the early stages of the evolution of the Universe. In 2001, they discovered molecular clouds, which along with H2 molecules contain НD molecules in which one hydrogen atom is replaced by a deuterium atom. This discovery made it possible to evaluate the chemical composition and parameters of the substance formed in the early stages of the evolution of the Universe. In total, the author of more than 200 scientific publications. The laureate of the State Prize (2008).

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