## Events |

## Born on January 23rd:

**Ernst Karl ABBE (1840 - 14.1.1905)**, a German optical physicist. The partner of Carl Zeiss, he developed the theory of image formation in a microscope (1872), built the first modern optical microscope (1878), and created a number of other optical devices. The merits of Abbe are marked by his election as a member of several academies and scientific societies, state awards.

**David HILBERT (1862 - 2.2.1943)**, a German mathematician, the honorary member of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Hilbert's works had a great influence on the development of the theory of invariants, the theory of algebraic numbers, the foundations of mathematics, mathematical logic, calculus of variations, differential and integral equations, number theory, and mathematical physics. The scientist's theory of integral equations with symmetric kernel became the basis of functional analysis (Hilbert space) and the spectral theory of linear operators.

**Paul LANGEVIN (1872 - 19.12.1946)**, a French physicist and public figure, a member of the Paris Academy of Sciences, and the honorary member of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1929), member of the Royal Society of London. He is a creator of the theory of diamagnetism and paramagnetism. Also, he developed a modern interpretation of this phenomenon in terms of electron spins in atoms. During his career, Paul Langevin did a lot to spread the theory of relativity in France and also formulated the Twin Paradox. He popularized the ideas of Louis de Broglie about the wave nature of the quantum properties of particles, which was one of the key points in the creation of modern quantum mechanics.

**Otto Paul Hermann DIELS (1876 - 7.3.1954)**, a German chemist. In 1927, he proposed a method for the dehydrogenation of organic compounds using selenium without changing their carbon skeleton; dehydrogenated cholesterol and other sterols. The Nobel Laureate in Chemistry of 1959 "for the discovery and development of diene synthesis" (together with Kurt ALDER).

**Vitalii Andreevich GRACHEV (1903 - 24.12.1978)**, a designer of automobile and special vehicles, the winner of two Stalin Prizes. He developed the first all-wheel-drive car GAZ-61 in the USSR, created an army amphibious vehicle, a number of wheeled artillery tractors, including for tactical missiles, a search and evacuation complex for the space industry, and a snow and swamp vehicle.

**Hideki YUKAWA (1907 - 8.9.1981)**, a Japanese physicist, the winner of the Nobel Prize of 1949 "for predicting the existence of mesons based on theoretical work on nuclear forces". The idea of the existence of a new type of elementary particles with a mass intermediate between the masses of an electron and a proton, Yukawa expressed in 1935, and by the end of the 40s, it was confirmed. Thus, Hideki Yukawa became the first Japanese to be awarded the Nobel Prize.

**Gertrude Belle ELION (1918 - 21.1.1999)**, an American biochemist and pharmacologist. She belongs to the study of the pharmacological action of nucleic acid antimetabolites used as antiviral and antitumor agents. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine of 1988 "For the Discovery of Important Principles of Drug Therapy" (with James BLACK and his longtime leader, George HITCHINGS).

**John Charles POLANYI (1929)**, a Canadian chemist. He developed a method of infrared chemiluminescence to study the dynamics of chemical processes. The Nobel laureate of 1986 "for his contribution to the development of a new field of research in chemistry - the dynamics of chemical reactions" (together with Dudley HERSCHBACH and Yuan LEE). In honor of the Polanyi Nobel Prize, the Ontario government instituted the John Charles Polanyi Prizes, which are awarded to young researchers from the province who are graduate students or begin to teach at the University of Ontario.

**Vladimir Evgenevich FORTOV (1946)**, a physicist, an academician (1991), the President of the Russian Academy of Sciences since 2013. He is a specialist in the field of thermophysics of extremely high temperatures and pressures, thermophysics of dense plasma, physical gas dynamics. He developed a general method for constructing wide-range semi-empirical equations of state for a highly compressed substance. He proposed theoretical models of the thermodynamic, transport, and optical properties of non-ideal plasma.