Born on March 31st:

Rene DESCARTES (1596 - 11.2.1650), a French philosopher, and mathematician. Descartes created a new branch of mathematics - analytical geometry, introduced the method of orthogonal coordinates, and developed the theory of algebraic equations. He introduced the generally accepted signs for designating variables (x, y, z) and coefficients (a, b, c ...), as well as designating degrees. The ideas of the philosopher who owns the famous saying “Cogito ergo sum” (I think, therefore, exist), with the development of science became more and more popular and destroyed the old frozen speculative schemes.

Robert Wilhelm BUNSEN (1811 - 16.8.1899), a German chemist, the corresponding member of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences. An outstanding experimenter and analyst devoted his whole life to science, laid the foundation for such areas of modern chemistry as photochemistry and spectral analysis. Already the first independent work on the study of organic compounds of arsenic led the scientist to the discovery of the antidote against poisoning by its compounds (1834). In 1841, Bunsen invented a carbon-zinc galvanic cell, which made it possible to obtain metallic magnesium, lithium, calcium, strontium, and barium by electrolysis of their molten chlorides. Together with physicist Gustav KIRCHHOFF he discovered a new and very subtle method of quantitative analysis, and also using spectral analysis they obtained two new elements - cesium and rubidium. Also known as the inventor of laboratory supplies and instruments (the most famous of them is the Bunsen gas burner).

Archibald Scott COUPER (1831 - 11.3.1892), a Scottish chemist. One of the founders of the theory of the chemical structure of organic compounds was the first to write down chemical formulas using valence sticks. Couper used dashed lines or dashes between the atoms in their formulas, which in appearance resemble the style of later formulas.

Sir William Lawrence BRAGG (1890 - 1.7.1971), an English physicist, the Nobel laureate of 1915 "for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays" (together with his father William Henry BRAGG). The youngest Nobel laureate in physics in its entire history - at the time of being awarded, he was 25 years old. In honor of William Lawrence Bragg and his father William Henry, the Bragg Institute was named, the Australian group for the study of neutron and x-ray scattering, is named.

Shinichiro TOMONAGA (1906 – 8.7.1979), a Japanese physicist, one of the founders of quantum electrodynamics, a foreign member of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1971). He owns works on the theory of neutrons, magnetism, quantum field theory. The Nobel laureate of 1965 "for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles" (together with Richard FEYNMAN and Julian SCHWINGER).

Nikolai Leonidovich KULCHYTSKYI (1908 - 24.2.1992), a Soviet and Ukrainian inventor. The Honored Artist of the Ukrainian SSR (1983). As a cameraman, he had copyright certificates for technological developments of camera equipment. So, when shooting the film “Sorochinskaya Fair” in 1938, he was the first to use the bipack method at the Kyiv film studio, in which shooting was carried out simultaneously on two films stacked by emulsions to each other. The art of N. Kulchitskyi is marked by the boldness of camera techniques, excellent work in black and white and with close-ups of the actors.

Carlo RUBBIA (1934), an Italian physicist, the Nobel laureate of 1984 "for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction" (together with Simon VAN DER MEER). He was the leader of the experimental group that made this discovery. They also discovered t-quarks. Rubbia also owns an innovative nuclear reactor device concept called an energy multiplier. This fundamentally safe concept combines an accelerator and a subcritical nuclear reactor, in which a common element of thorium is used as fuel and in which an uncontrolled chain reaction cannot fundamentally occur. In this reactor, the disposal of nuclear waste from conventional nuclear reactors and their conversion into less hazardous substances is possible.

Masahiko AOKI (1938 - 15.7.2015), a Japanese economist, the president of the International Economic Association in the period 2008—2011. He introduced the concept of “I am a company”, which defines a company as a coalition of employees and owners. His work is mainly devoted to the analysis of the economic model of Japanese firms and the management of firms in transition economies.




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