## Events |

## Born on February 15th:

**Galileo GALILEI (1564 - 8.1.1642)**, an Italian scientist who discovered spots on the Sun, mountains on the Moon, four satellites of Jupiter, phases near Venus. He had a significant impact on the science of his time - laid the foundations of mechanics: put forward the idea of the relativity of motion, established the laws of inertia, free fall and the movement of bodies on an inclined plane, the addition of motions; discovered the isochronism of oscillations of a pendulum; first investigated the strength of beams. . He first used a telescope to observe celestial bodies and made a number of outstanding astronomical discoveries. The great physicist, mechanic, and astronomer became one of the founders of exact natural science.

**Isaac Lowthian BELL (1816 - 12.20.1904)**, one of the most famous British metallurgists of his time. The founder of the first industrial enterprise for the production of aluminum, a participant in the development of the theory of the domain process, a member of the Royal Society of London. He has undertaken several projects to study the properties of iron and alkalis, and also collaborated with other pioneers of metallurgy, including Robert Stirling NEWELL, to produce steel cables.

**George Johnstone STONEY (1826 - 5.7.1911)**, an Irish physicist and mathematician, who for the first time in 1874 gave a quantitative estimate of the minimum electric charge and in 1891 proposed the name "electron" for an elementary electric charge.

**Charles Edouard GUILLAUME (1861 - 13.6.1938)**, a Swiss physicist. He worked mainly in metrology. Determined that the volume of 1 liter is not 1000 cubic centimeters, but 1000.028. He studied nickel alloys with steel, created Invar, Elinvar, and other alloys used in high-precision instruments and measurement standards. The winner of the Nobel Prize in 1920 "in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel-steel alloys".

**Mikhail Stepanovich VREVSKY (1871 - 29.5.1929)**, a physic chemist. Conducted research in the field of the thermodynamic theory of binary liquid systems of all concentrations; He proposed a new method for determining the potential vapor pressure and the degree of dissociation in vapor of solutions containing molecules of the associated component; He derived the laws for calculating the heat of evaporation for double solutions (the laws of Vrevsky). In 1929 he was awarded for his research the Lenin Prize.

**Hans Carl August Simon von EULER-CHELPIN (1873 - 11.06.1964)**, a German-Swedish biochemist, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry of 1929 "for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes" (with Arthur HARDEN). Developed methods for the isolation and purification of enzymes. Established the structure and mechanism of action of coenzyme NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide).

**Ryogo KUBO (1920 - 31.3.1995)**, a Japanese physicist, gained fame for his work in the field of statistical physics and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. He achieved success in understanding electron transfer and electronic conductivity through the Kubo formalism, an approach based on the application of Green's functions to the linear response theory of quantum systems. He was awarded the Boltzmann Medal "for his contribution to the theory of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and the theory of fluctuation phenomena".

**Yurii Andreevich OSIPYAN (1931 - 10.9.2008)**, a physicist and academician (1981). The Editor-in-chief of "Kvant" magazine, which opened the way to science for more than one generation of schoolchildren. Osipyan's work contributed to the development of the physics of dislocations in semiconductor crystals. His experiments on electron paramagnetic resonance on dangling bonds led to the creation of a method for diagnosing semiconductors.

**Eduard Nikolaevich SHEBANITS (1937)**, a Soviet and Ukrainian metallurgist. The author of 127 scientific and technical publications, 200 inventions, 150 rationalization proposals. Under his leadership, first at the cold rolling mills, and then at the hot rolling mills of the Ilyich plant, and soon at Zaporizhstal, for the first time in the USSR, highly efficient rolling precision control systems were introduced. Awarded for this development by the USSR State Prize.