Born on August 31st:

Guillaume AMONTONS (1663 – 11.10.1705), a French physicist who designed a hygrometer, a non-mercury barometer, an air thermometer and a U-tube barometer used on ships, improved (1703) the pyrometer. Back in 1703, he implied the existence of absolute zero temperature, discovered the laws of external friction of solids. He established a relationship between air pressure and its density, measured the dependence of air volume on temperature. He showed (1699) that friction is proportional to the mutual pressure of rubbing surfaces.

Michel Eugene CHEVREUL (1786 - 9.4.1889), a French organic chemist, the member of the Paris Academy of Sciences. One of the creators of the scientific method for the analysis of organic chemistry. He conducted the classic studies of vegetable and animal fats, which were of great importance for the development of organic chemistry and found practical application in the industrial production of soap, stearin and some dyes. Also he gave the name "glycerin" to the "fat sugar" discovered by the Swede Karl SCHEELE. Together with Joseph GAY-LUSSAC, in 1825 he took a patent for the manufacture of stearic candles.

Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand HELMHOLTZ (1821 - 8.9.1894), a German physicist and physiologist. For the first time (1847) he mathematically substantiated the law of conservation of energy, showing its universal character. He developed the thermodynamic theory of chemical processes, introduced the concepts of free and bound energies. An author of fundamental works on the physiology of hearing and vision. He discovered and measured heat generation in muscles, studied the process of muscle contraction, and measured the speed of propagation of a nerve impulse.

Emanuel GOLDBERG (1881 – 13.09.1870), a German and Israeli physicist and inventor, the laureate of the Israel State Prize in the field of exact sciences. Among his inventions are the microdots, the Kinamo film camera, the 35mm Contax camera, the search engine, and sensimetry equipment. Patented an improved method for electroplating zinc on iron in 1902 and published numerous technical papers on improving printing methods.

Harry Stone MOSHER (1915 - 2.3.2002), an American chemist, an inventor of the Mosher acid, which is used to measure the degree of left- or right-chirality in organic molecules. He conducted research in the section of chemistry of natural products and stereochemistry. Established the structure of a toxin known as Tetrodotoxin. Mosher also worked on many other natural compounds, including plant pigments and toxic substances.

Igor Konstantinovich BAZHINOV (1928 - 8.7.2015), a Soviet and Russian physicist, a full member of the Russian Academy of Cosmonautics and the Russian Academy of Technological Sciences. The Laureate of the Lenin Prize in 1957 for his participation in research and development on the creation of composite ballistic missiles and satellites and the USSR State Prize in 1987 for his merits in the creation of the Coordination and Computing Center for Spacecraft Control. An author and co-author of over 100 scientific works, including a monograph on the theory and practice of space flight.

Hugh David POLITZER (1949), an American theoretical physicist, the winner of the Nobel Prize in physics of 2004 (with David GROSS and Frank WILCZEK) "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction". Together with Thomas APPELQUIST, he played a major role in predicting the existence of charmonium - an elementary particle consisting of a charmed quark and its antiparticle. The experimenters named this particle the J / ψ meson.




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